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White Papers

 Perspectives and Recommendations Regarding Standards for Ultraviolet-C Whole-Room Disinfection in Healthcare

University of California Irvine School of Medicine 

Arthur Kreitenberg and Richard A. Martinello

 Anti-microbial effect of filtered 222nm excimer lamps in a hospital waiting area

 Jacob Thyrsted, Søren Helbo Skaarup, Andreas Fløe Hvass, Sara Moeslund Joensen, Stine Y. Nielsen, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Pernille Hauschildt, Christian K. Holm

 Computer Modeling Indicates Dramatically Less DNA Damage from Far-UVC Krypton Chloride Lamps (222 nm) than from Sunlight Exposure

University of Dundee

 fda.gov linked to research paper published on nature.com

 Far-UVC light efficiently and safely inactivates airborne human coronaviruses

Manuela Buonanno, David Welch, Igor Shuryak et al. Far-UVC light efficiently and safely inactivates airborne human coronaviruses. 27 April 2020, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square.  

 Action spectra for validation of pathogen disinfection in medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) systems

Sara E. Beck, Harold B. Wright, Thomas M. Hargy, Thomas C. Larason, Karl G. Linden. Action spectra for validation of pathogen disinfection in medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) systems. Water Research, Volume 70, 2015, Pages 27-37, ISSN 0043-1354.

 Chronic irradiation with 222-nm UVC light induces neither DNA damage nor epidermal lesions in mouse skin, even at high doses

Narita K, Asano K, Morimoto Y, Igarashi T, Nakane A (2018). Chronic irradiation with 222-nm UVC light induces neither DNA damage nor epidermal lesions in mouse skin, even at high doses. PLOS ONE 13(7): e0201259.

 222-nm UVC inactivates a wide spectrum of microbial pathogens

Narita, Kouji & Asano, Krisana & Naito, Keisuke & Ohashi, Hiroyuki & Sasaki, Masahiro & Morimoto, Yukihiro & Igarashi, Tatsushi & Nakane, Akio (2020). 222-nm UVC inactivates a wide spectrum of microbial pathogens. Journal of Hospital Infection, 23 March 2020, PREPROOF published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Healthcare Infection Society.

 Long‐term effects of 222 nm ultraviolet radiation C sterilizing lamps on mice susceptible to ultraviolet radiation

Yamano, N., Kunisada, M., Kaidzu, S., Sugihara, K., Nishiaki‐Sawada, A., Ohashi, H., Yoshioka, A., Igarashi, T., Ohira, A., Tanito, M. and Nishigori, C. (2020). Long‐term effects of 222 nm ultraviolet radiation C sterilizing lamps on mice susceptible to ultraviolet radiation. Photochem Photobiol, Accepted Author Manuscript.

 DNA Damage Kills Bacterial Spores and Cells Exposed to 222-Nanometer UV Radiation

Willie Taylor, Emily Camilleri, D. Levi Craft, George Korza, Maria Rocha Granados, Jaliyah Peterson, Renata Szczpaniak, Sandra K. Weller, Ralf Moeller, Thierry Douki, Wendy W. K. Mok, Peter Setlow. DNA Damage Kills Bacterial Spores and Cells Exposed to 222-Nanometer UV Radiation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Apr 2020, 86 (8) e03039-19.

  Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases

Welch, D., Buonanno, M., Grilj, V. et al. Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Sci Rep 8:2752 (2018).

 Evaluation of acute corneal damage induced by 222-nm and 254-nm ultraviolet light in Sprague–Dawley rats

Sachiko Kaidzu, Kazunobu Sugihara, Masahiro Sasaki, Aiko Nishiaki, Tatsushi Igarashi & Masaki Tanito (2019). Evaluation of acute corneal damage induced by 222-nm and 254-nm ultraviolet light in Sprague–Dawley rats. Free Radical Research, 53:6, Pages 611-617 

  Effect of far ultraviolet light emitted from an optical diffuser on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

Welch D, Buonanno M, Shuryak I, Randers-Pehrson G, Spotnitz HM, et al. (2018). Effect of far ultraviolet light emitted from an optical diffuser on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. PLOS ONE 13(8): e0202275.

 Evaluation of acute corneal damage induced by 222-nm and 254-nm ultraviolet light in Sprague–Dawley rats

Buonanno, M., Ponnaiya, B., Welch, D., Stanislauskas, M., Randers-Pehrson, G., Smilenov, L., Lowy, F. D., Owens, D. M., & Brenner, D. J. (2017). Germicidal Efficacy and Mammalian Skin Safety of 222-nm UV Light. Radiation research, 187(4), 483–491.

  Far UV-C Radiation: Current State-of Knowledge

International Ultraviolet Association